Wilderness Manifesto — Final

27 Apr

The topic for this wilderness manifesto is derived from a collaboration of discussions, experiences, and readings I’ve done throughout the semester. It represents my definition of wilderness, my understanding of how it works, and what we should do to sustain it. This ethic focuses on sustainability of wilderness in order to preserve our economy, culture, and recreation activities. It was hard to focus this piece towards one topic because all of the concepts and ethics are interrelated. In order to make any strong claims toward wilderness, I had to define it. This was difficult because my definition is constantly changing. To combat this issue, I incorporated other potential viewpoints, which in return created a stronger argument for sustainability.  Incorporating personal examples helped illustrate the value wilderness can provide. This piece differs from other classmates because it suggests a specific way to introduce sustainability in school systems. This assignment has taught me that it’s okay to have differencing definitions. The main goal of ethics and debates are to pick a stance, find common ground, and then ACT together to make a change.

 

There are vast complexities of definitions when discussing wilderness. Even more complex and controversial is the topic of wilderness importance and how it should be used. A wilderness ethic discusses the value of wilderness. Many ethics overlap in ideals, yet coming up with a solution or reason for wilderness controversies seems near impossible. Why? Everything is interconnected; changing one aspect of wilderness has an effect on all other parts of wilderness.

The first step to wilderness discussion is defining wilderness. This is no easy task, but for now my definition of wilderness is synonymous with the definition of nature. The Merriam Webster Dictionary defines nature as “the inherent character or basic constitution of a person or thing” (Merriam Webster). This means nature is a part of our grounding as human beings. While some think that wilderness is the absence of human beings, Kari Mosden presents a different approach. In her article, “Can Ecopsychology Save the Wilderness Debate?” Mosden discusses the idea of human connection to nature. “Humans are intrinsically tied to the environment. We are a product of nature and cannot, and should not, deny that relationship” (Mosden).  This means that wilderness is a part of our culture; it’s helped build our character, develop viewpoints, and create a thriving economy. It’s even saved our lives.

Yet this is assuming wilderness and nature are synonymous. Many advocates of wilderness preservation believe wilderness to be a place where one can get lost. On the first day of Wilderness Writing, one classmate expressed his viewpoint, suggesting wilderness no longer exists because there is no place on Earth where one can’t be found or tracked. While this viewpoint is a little extreme, many view wilderness as a place that is constantly shrinking. Wilderness is considered destroyed once humans have interrupted it. With this framework of thinking, wilderness is constantly dwindling. Aldo Leopold stated in his essay “Wilderness,” “Wilderness is a resource that can shrink, but not grow” (Leopold). He explains that wilderness can no longer be created; therefore we should limit our use of it.

Upon discussing these opposing views of wilderness and listening to classmate’s uses and opinions, I came up with a realization. Perhaps nature can exist without wilderness, but wilderness cannot exist without nature. Considering these two opposing views of wilderness, how to do we come up with a solution to wilderness value conflicts? We must find common ground. The common ground between both of these viewpoints of wilderness is sustainability. No matter how one defines wilderness, there is always some need to save it. Of course now enters the problem of how we should go about saving it. Should wilderness be preserved for the biodiversity of the planet? Should it be saved for only human use and recreation? Should wilderness be saved to preserve culture? Should wilderness be saved to protect and benefit the economy? Ultimately, the question to be answered is what value does wilderness have to us and how should we go about ensuring this value sticks.

The first step entails preserving nature in which humans are a part of. It’s impossible to recreate wilderness, so the best thing we can do is make what we have left sustainable. Sustainability is essential for the survival of future generations, not only for their experiences, but also for the vitalities of life, the economy, and mental sanity.

It’s inevitable that at the current rate and intensity humans are utilizing wilderness, future generations won’t have the same opportunities and resources available to them. This will create the larger generation gap than we already have to today. It seems as if the more wilderness becomes diminished, the more human beings become commercialized, and the more children are stuck inside on technology. Yet as stated previously, humans are a part of nature. It’s intrinsically built in their genes as a part of evolution to be involved in it, which explains the role wilderness plays in culture. As wilderness begins to shrink, through “destruction by humans” our culture becomes more shallow and meaningless.

Before the times of digital technology and written stories, oral stories were told that illustrated the value of nature and culture. Oral culture used “practical intelligence” which involved stories and life lessons learned from the local lands (Abrams). Nature was responsible for telling the stories because everything was alive and had value. When humans try to write this value down, quantify it, or define it, we “find ourselves living more and more in our heads, adrift in a sea of abstractions . . . alien to our own dreams and emotions” (Abram). This could be seen as a cause of a wide variety in the definitions of wilderness. Humans are no longer attached to the land and don’t receive the same generational stories of the land, causing “the land” (wilderness in this case) to be an abstract idea that we try to quantify but are unable to connect with.

Quantifying the land has become apparent in economic globalization, which has torn apart smaller economies, disrupting not only cultural diversity, but also biodiversity. Yet, we cannot develop, change, preserve, or advocate for wilderness preservation if there is no attachment to it. Changes in language technologies have made our language become more shallow and abstract. Technology has taken personal value from the land, making wilderness appear foreign and distant.

I remember my dad always telling me about his interactions with wilderness as a child. He would spend countless days fishing at the lake, skiing in the mountains, hiking through the woods, making campfires, and exploring natural territory. He thoroughly enjoyed the wilderness as a place of recreation. To him, wilderness was like a vast playground where boredom didn’t exist.

Luckily, through the Indian Princess Program at the YMCA, I was able to experience wilderness in similar situations with my dad. When asked to define wilderness on the first day of Wilderness Writing class, I defined it as a place where we could be creative, explore, and have fun. I have vivid memories of testing boundaries as I walked over unsturdy logs and climbed trees. Seeing who could make the best fire or roast the best marshmallow generated competition. It’s through these experiences that I’ve realized wilderness gives us a chance to forget our current problems bustled up in today’s society and allows us to become rejuvenated. This is one ideal that demonstrates why wilderness should be sustained for recreational purposes.

There are many benefits to outdoor recreation ranging from physical health benefits, to cultural pride, to economic revenue, which all help generate respect of the world around us (Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation). Consider our Wilderness Writing trip to Boone, where we hiked up Grandfather Mountain as a class. No one in our class considered themselves an experienced hiker; we were all nervous about being outside in the elements all day for seven miles. Yet the accomplishment of reaching an elevation of nearly 6,000 feet left us all speechless, filled with amazement in our unknown abilities. There’s no doubt we got our healthy dose of exercise as our legs burned constantly for the next three days. In addition, pushing each other to our limits and encouraging each other to continue on even when we didn’t think we could make it allowed our class to become unified. Our personalities were uncovered in the wilderness as we experienced moments of frustration, joy, peace, serenity, and excitement. This life-learning lesson of teambuilding and self-realization couldn’t have taken place inside of a classroom. We need wilderness areas and diverse experiences to understand ourselves. Once we understand ourselves, we’re more able to understand others and the natural world around us.

Unfortunately outdoor recreation areas, including national parks and preservation areas, are being threatened by our capitalistic lifestyle. “With 80% of our population living in cities, our country is the most urban it’s ever been. For many the only exposure to the natural environment they see is on television and computer screens” (Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation). We need to sustain outdoor recreation because  “recreation is the portal for understanding and caring for natural resources and public lands” (Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation). It provides fun, challenging, and attractive experiences from which we learn, become, aware of problems, and then act to give back to make experiences sustainable for future generations.

We’re aware that excessive recreation affects wilderness areas. However, the frontier movement in the early 19th century also contributed to American culture of exploiting nature’s resources. During this time, wilderness was seen as a form of expansion and escape. We began building removing Native American’s from their land, building railroads, and developing commercial farming techniques. As population expanded, so did the need for food. This meant more animals needed to be hunted; more plants were destroyed for clothes and food. The rapid growth initiated development of faster, more efficient farming techniques. People began to trade commodities rather than grow them themselves. Attachment to the nature and understanding of how the land works was dwindling as our capitalistic society took off.

There wouldn’t be any problem if natural resources and wilderness were unlimited or if our advance production practices were environmentally sustainable. “The rapid depletion of these essential resources, coupled with the degradation of land and atmospheric quality, shows that the human economy as currently configured is already inflicting serious damage on global supporting ecosystems” (Goodland 7). We can see here that humans are anthropocentric beings, depending on nature and wilderness to keep us alive. Yet are humans willing to share the Earth or should the wilderness make room for humans?

Think about how often we use nature. We rely on clean air to supply oxygen to our muscles so we can simply function as human beings. We depend on a diversity of nutrients that come from a variety of plants and animals. We depend upon nature to provide us jobs. Where would the health care industry be without pharmaceuticals that come from biodiverse plants that are slowly regenerating? Would we have a business industry if we didn’t utilize the trees, land, fish, and plants involved in wilderness? Our lives are constantly intertwined and dependent upon nature’s resources, but humans have taken that out of context.

When discussing the health of our economy, which is dependent upon nature and sustainability, we fail to put a price on natural capital. We fail to realize that every single tree we cut down, gallon of water we pollute, or animal we kill has a value towards future sustainability. However, as capitalists try to grow our economy, “a subsystem of the finite and non growing earth,” (Goodman 9) we realize that we are limited by the availability of natural capital. “Timber is limited by remaining forests, not by saw mills” (Goodman 14). There has been a shift in limiting factors. At first wilderness and nature were seen as limitless and free, but as we take advantage of the land, we’re beginning to see it’s limiting effects. We are no longer limited by our knowledge, but by the diminishing resources of today’s wilderness.

If wilderness’s resources are diminishing due to over use, its spiritual and intrinsic effects must be diminishing as well. Wilderness provides qualities such as “a sense of freedom, refreshment for the mind, body, and spirit, carefree pleasure, splendor, fresh air, a change of pace, solitude, quiet, inspiration, introspection, and inner peace” (Roberts 4). The more and more people are hustled and bustled in today’s society, the more attractive wilderness tourist areas have become. The growing popularity of these tourist areas has generated another form of economic profit.  People with utilism attitudes toward wilderness feel that wilderness and all of it’s natural resources are to be used for man’s production (Saarinen 30). Therefore we’ve begun to build roads, hotels, and resorts in the “wilderness.” But doesn’t this contradict the original purpose for entering the wilderness? Value on a wilderness experience is based on “the quality of one’s conscience” (Cronon). If people’s conscience are tangled up in the hustle and bustle of today’s urban society and wilderness areas are becoming developed and crowded, we have no place to go to clear our conscience.

So what do we do about these complexities? We must balance everything out. Humans need to be involved in wilderness, yet take a more biocentric approach towards it.  We must see ourselves as “citizens of the environmental community rather than conquerors of it” (Roberts 21).  Cronon quotes Wendell Berry claiming, “’The only thing we have to preserve nature with is culture; the only thing we have to preserve wildness with is domesticity” (Berry qtd in Cronon).

Therefore the first step in sustainability of wilderness, nature, and the environment involves preservation of culture. School systems should teach the history of wilderness and explain how it has shaped the American economy. Tales of the land should be passed down. We should acknowledge the fact that we use nature in our every day lives.

Furthermore, we could start by reforming the education system. We could use the wilderness as a teaching tool to demonstrate a wide variety of skills. Field trips and hands on experience could help children learn team-building skills, build confidence, and recognize how dependent we are on land. Many schools in California and New York have adopted school gardens where students are involved in growing vegetables and plants to be used in school lunch programs. Studies have shown that small, grassroots movements like this have deepened children’s connections with nature and generated positive attitudes to ecological awareness. They’ve taught children about the importance and fragility of nature (Making the Case: Benefits of School Garden Programs).

In addition to educating, sustainable practices such as school gardens can benefit the local ecosystem by increasing biodiversity, drawing new species, eliminating water run off pollution, and providing better quality air (Making the Case: Benefits of School Garden Programs).

Getting youth involved in nature again will decrease the generation gap as the younger generation interacts with the elder population to regenerate sustainable recreational and economical practices of the past. This will generate activists to preserve nature for recreational use, spiritual revival, and economic sustainability. The only way to preserve wilderness for all three is to intertwine them together through sustainable practices (such as school gardens). We must “encourage growth of natural capital by reducing our current level of exploitation” (Goodland 16). We must continue to use nature as recreation because it’s the “portal for understanding natural resources and public lands” (Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation). We must work together as society to preserve these experiences that provide us with knowledge, connecting our past to our present, to provide us with a life filled with meaningful connections to each other, our culture, our environment, and our roots. After all, humans evolved from wilderness. Therefore sustaining it entails sustaining the human race.

Works Cited

Abram, David. “Storytelling and Wonder: on the rejuvenation of oral culture.” Resurgence 222. Web. 12 April 2013.

“Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation.” United States Forest Service, USDA Recreation, Heritage and Volunteer Resources (2010). Web. 12 April 2013.

Goodland, Robert. “The Concept of Environmental Sustainability.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26 (1995): 1-24. Web. 12 April 2013.

Leopold, Aldo. “”Wilderness”” The Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There. 1949. 200-13. Web. 12 April 2013.

“Making the Case: Benefits of School Garden Programs.” DC Schoolyard Greening, n.d. Web. 19 April 2013.

Mosden, Kari. “Can Ecopsychology Save the Wilderness Debate?” Gatherings: Journal of the International Community of Ecopsychology. Web. 19 April 2013.

“Nature.” Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 19 April 2013.

Roberts, Lynda. The Wilderness Debate: A Conflict Between Values. 1- 26. 12 April 2013.

Saarinen, Jarkko. “Wilderness, Tourism Development, and Sustainability: Wilderness Attutides and Place Ethics.” USDA Forest Service Proceedings. Web. 12 April 2013.

William Cronin, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, New York: W. W. Norton &Co., 1995, 69-90.

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Dancing Through River Park North — Final Polished Narrative

27 Apr

This creative narrative was a major challenge for me. I stumbled across the idea after reminiscing on my senior year of figure skating. I originally said I would never look at this piece again. The creative, abstract writing was foreign to me. After much encouraging, I took the risk of expanding it. After ballet class on Tuesdays and Thursdays, I would add to the piece, relating what we did in class to what I saw in nature outside. It was hard to find an audience and genre for this piece because this type of writing was foreign to me. I’m usually not the creative and flowery type. I still think this piece is weird, especially coming from me. However, changing it to first person made the story feel less abstract. In addition, re-reading and cutting out all of the awkward pauses and flowery language helped the piece flow; in addition, I added extra sentences helping readers distinguish between the setting in nature and the setting of the dance playing in my head. Overall, this piece turned out better than I had imagined. I’ve learned to revise creative writing pieces keeping the audience in mind. I have to constantly remind myself to connect thoughts in writing because readers do not know what’s running through my head. The goal of this piece is to demonstrate how one can get lost in nature. It also serves demonstrate how nature is connected in our lives and how it can be used to calm us in times of stress.

It’s the early afternoon of the big performance. I’m very nervous, so I decide to go for a stroll through River Park North. There’s something about nature and outdoors that really calms my nerves. I can feel the windy, chilling breeze whip across my flesh as I head out the door. It seems shocking and a bit blistering at first, but the frigid temperature puts my body into a state of excitement. It prepares and energizes me for the grand performance. For the past six months my dance company has spent countless hours slaving away to make this one-hour production the best thing anyone has ever witnessed. It’s my goal through smooth, complex, intricate, and dainty movements to portray my feelings across the stage. Although, there won’t be any directional chatter, I’m confident the power of the music, mixed with the synchronized arrangements and variety of tempos will broadcast emotions into the hearts of the audience. My best friend and I have been joking about the reaction the audience will have. It’s our goal to make the audience bawl like a puppy that has been left home alone for the first time. After all, it is my senior year. I’ve been working for thirteen years to portray my inner soul across the stage; why not go out with a bang?

As I begin my pre-performance stroll through the park, my gaze drifts upward, noticing the diminishing blue sky. It’s a very pale light blue, almost appearing white in the distance, but building into a deep bright crystal clear blue directly overhead. This sky resembles the perfect backdrop for the recital. The simplicity of the blues is peaceful. It’s the perfect day to sit outside and watch the clouds pass by. Memories of childhood family picnics rush into my head. After running around in the refreshing breeze, climbing on rocks, and jumping through the stream, I recall sitting down on that red-and-white-checkered blanket and gazing at the clouds while actively brainstorming the mysterious and ever changing shapes that drifted across the sky. It was soothing after the long hours of high excitement. Maybe that’s what I’ll do after the performance tonight: cloud watch. It’s ironic how the sky can take on so many forms just like a dance production. Right now in the park the sky not only fills me with exciting childhood memories, but also relaxes and calms me for the big performance to come.

As I wander through the tangled woods, my mind keeps drifting off to the performance. The tall, twisted, intertwined, branches and sea grass resemble the curtain as it’s about to open. There’s something secretive about it, similar to a magical fairy tale forest. The audience is awaiting the mystery behind the enchanted, tousled curtain. Anticipation spews through the trunk of the tree, spirals out toward the branches, squeezes into the leaf buds, and flourishes into the diverse green leaves. The deep green signifies the spirited life and joy in the heart of the audience. Similarly to Greenville’s crazy weather patterns, no one is sure of what to expect in this performance. The performance could be deceiving, seeming cheery and sunny if you judge the program. However in reality it may be cold, unconnected, and harsh. As a raindrop trickles down my face, I realize the performance could have the opposite effect: a treacherous thunderstorm, covering the stage in darkness, but filled beautiful strikes of lightening that brighten up the sky, keeping the audience on the edge of their seats.

Much like a last look backstage, I feel reassured and ready to go after quickly glancing to my left into the wind. I’m relieved as the bright reflection from the sun blocks my view of the audience. Not only is this light blinding, but it also provides warmth and comfort. It’s like a childhood blanket: the perfect remedy to keep calm in times of nervousness. The serene sunlight floods my heart with joy and passion. I’m filled with indescribable bliss as I’m on the point of taking part in the best performance of my life.

The delicate ripples on the pond resemble the start of the dance. All of my nervous energy is lost, including the chills traveling down my spine. It’s as if the nervous energy is carried elsewhere by the serene ripples of the pond. Each ripple grows vastly as the whistling of the wind picks up and carries my fears further away, while uncovering the tremendous skills I’ve developed as a dancer.

I picture myself tiptoeing across stage with soft, subtle, and secretive movements, just like I did as a child on Christmas Eve. As I trip over the branch that has fallen across the path, I feel like a sly fox scurrying through the woods, outrunning ratchet human beings who are loaded down with excessive clunky metal traps and guns. The giant leap across the stage, causing my legs to split as wide as possible in opposite directions, resembles this fox as it faithfully stretches across the colossal fallen log.

The leaves begin to crunch together and sway in the breeze, while a small, faint chattering of birds begins as my fellow dancers enter on the stage. I’m focused as I try to resemble the flowing breeze. As I gradually get lost in the music, my arms flow lightly, like feathers falling from the sky.  A soft melody is created as each tweet from the birds becomes more harmonious with the whispering winds around me.  The crescendo begins as the wind picks up blowing in dark blusterous clouds. The climax is building as nature acts out the performance before me. The dancers are crossing paths in every direction: front, side, back, cross stage. Chaînés turns get faster and faster with each building note. Arms make vast movements, swirling left and right, up and down. Fingers flutter back and forth frivolously like a rush of energy pouring from the sky.  The stage looks like a blizzard. The white tutus circulating the stage appear to be a whiteout. Snow is spiraling every direction and each flake has it’s own unique shape.  Out of the entire ruckus I picture the main dancer rising above the storm. Words can’t describe the majesty of this moment. It’s as if the wolf’s cry has startled the storm, causing everything to freeze as the tired, husky wolf, tip toes forward.

I take a minute to ponder on what just happened. Although it’s not snowing outside, the increasing breeze and slight mist from the pond made me feel like I was in a winter wonderland.  Much like dance, there’s so much diversity and complexity in nature. And so much can happen in a short amount of time. It feels wild out here.

Meanwhile, the black and yellow birds chase each other back and forth, playing hide and go seek or catch me if you can. As I curiously wander through the park, I impersonate the birds. First, my right arm lifts up gracefully. Before I can stop it, my left arm is following the same pattern. The motion remains in my lower arm as I softly extend my elbow, letting the soaring motion flow through my wrist and out my fingers. Each step is light and dainty. I feel the spontaneous urge to creep around trees, sashaying from one to another. I’m filled with joy and freedom, much like improvisation days at the studio. This reminds me of the hard work I’ve spent preparing for the performance, including the countless hours of mimicking the choreography. A smile creeps across my face as I’m reminded of the beauty of my persistent hard work ethic. Sometimes I feel like a newborn fawn. After long four hour practices my legs feel disconnected and clumsy. I can barely stand up; much less make a connection with the music. My brain is frazzled; I’m on the verge of tears due to the stress of exhaustion and constant failure. However, there’s always the turning point. The relief the fawn feels when he get his legs underneath him for the first time is similar to “that feeling” I get when everything clicks; I’m back in the moment, fueled with inferno, and eager to continue on to perfection.

After continuing across the gravel path, I pay attention to the high-pitched tweets, immediately followed by the low, disgruntled chatter.  This must be the reaction of the audience as the curtains close to signaling the end of the performance. High- pitched claps express signs of a successful show filled with excitement and gratuity. Yet, the upsetting faces are sad that the performance is coming to an end.

As I prepare to leave the park, I notice a misfit tree. Unlike all the others, it’s standing perfectly straight with white, smooth bark. It looks clean and pure sitting amongst the warped, scrambled woodland. Has the tree been watching and judging my every move? I wonder why this tree looks out of place. It’s kind of like that awkward background dancer who throws off the entire performance because they are a half of a step off beat.

A production is very similar to nature; everything is interdependent. Think about the food chain for example. That gorgeous sunlight highlighting the horizon is actually a source of energy for the meek whips of green grass poking through the porous Earth. Not to mention that awkward tree thrives off of the sunlight. Animals such as mice and rabbits depend on these plants for nourishment. Snakes and larger animals, like the majestic wolf, then ingest the mice and rabbits. That big black crow that interrupted my performance eats everything below it on the chain. Energy is transferred from life form to life form, much like movement is transferred from dancer to dancer. There must be a certain balance. Imagine walking into a forest, only to find one tree, three hundred deer, ten mosquitoes, two puddles, and twenty-six types of grass. It just wouldn’t make sense. The same balance and unity is needed for a performance. Small changes must go undetected. That little unintentional fall across the stage can be made into a graceful gathering of emotions. I picture the most difficult part of my solo: the pique turns, followed by a develope leap into the king’s arms. I know I’ve fallen on it many times in practice, but my understanding of the food chain and balance has taught me to improvise and fit it into context. If I fall, I know to tumble down gracefully, much like the falling leaves that are beginning to tackle my ankles.

A rough, golden orange leaf falls on my head. Another spiky pinecone slaps into my hand as a giant gust of wind slashes through the environment. Man, nature can be harsh! And then I realize this is the way the wilderness communicates with me. It’s yelling at me to quit being negative and dwelling on the what ifs; that spiky pinecone’s rebound to the ground represents my soul knocking the pessimistic thoughts out of my head as I continue to preview the performance.

I glance down at my watch and realize three hours have gone by! The performance is in two hours and I still have to go home to get lunch! Panic sets in as I sprint down the gravel path, tuning out all of the beauties I just spent the last three hours connecting to. But all of a sudden that tall, awkward white tree catches my eye again. I’m unsure of what this means, why it exists, or if it’s symbol of good luck. But then I realize I feel calm again. The captivating uniqueness of that tree takes away all of my worries, stressors, and anxiety. Perhaps it’s like an angel sent from Heaven, which would explain why it looks so pure and white. Either way, I’m attached to that tree.

A friend approaches me as I arrive at the theater and inquires why I look so calm and collected. I try to explain what just happened on the trail, but I can’t.  I just know there’s something inside of my heart; I’m not sure whether it is the thought of that misfit tree, the peaceful chasing of the birds, or the rippling of the river that cleansed my mind. I walked out of the park feeling refreshed and rejuvenated. I know my worries were swept away in the breeze; my confidence is confirmed; I understand that I am a part of this world and that tonight is my night to shine. The motions of the components of wilderness are built inside of me. I’m speechless. I’ve realized dance is wild. It’s natural. It’s not only in my blood, but also rooted in the soil of the Earth. It’s a unique creation to which the interpretation will always remain a mystery.

Earth Day Lunch

23 Apr

IMG_1396 IMG_1397 IMG_1398 IMG_1399 IMG_1400 IMG_1401

 

As a part of Earth Day yesterday, the dining hall hosted an Earth Day lunch, which served local foods, rather than foods shipped from across ocean. As you can see, no only were the foods local, but they were also fresh and non processed. I probably ate too much, but I tried everything! (including alligator!). I have to admit, I was scared to try the alligator at first, but I ended up really liking it! Next time I go somewhere with alligator I will definitely consider ordering it. The I had flounder that was actually from North Carolina. The seared mushroom and kale was from South Carolina and the roasted root vegetables were from Alabama. In addition, they served “grilled and chilled” vegetables. Purchasing locally grown foods keeps your dollars in your local area, not around the world. In addition, buying local foods helps the environment because shipping and handling is decreased. This decreases chemical waste emissions from boats, charters, semi trucks, and other transportation mechanisms used to deliver food from overseas. Buying local is also good for your health. Local farms don’t have to worry about mass production and therefore don’t use as many chemicals and pesticides on their crops, leaving you with vegetables that are not genetically modified. It’s a win-win situation. Good food. Good for the economy. Good for your health.

Also, the Today Show had an Earth Day special, featuring an elementary school who grows their own vegetables to be used in the school cafeteria. I think that is a really cool idea. It keeps children focused on plant growth, biodiversity, and the effect of the environment. Since the foods are grown on sight, It s transportation emissions are limited, allowing for a cleaner, more sustainable environment. In addition, it encourages healthy lifestyle and food choices at a young age. Getting children involved in the environment now will lead to more sustainability and environmentally conscious generations in the future!

Wilderness Manifesto

21 Apr

There are vast complexities of definitions when discussing wilderness. Even more complex and controversial is the topic of wilderness importance and how it should be used. A wilderness ethic discusses the value of wilderness. Many ethics overlap in ideals, yet coming up with a solution or reason for wilderness controversies seems near impossible. Why? Everything is interconnected, and changing one aspect of wilderness has an effect on all other parts of wilderness.

The first step to wilderness discussion is defining wilderness. This is no easy task, but for now my definition of wilderness is synonymous with the definition of nature. The Merriam Webster Dictionary defines nature as “the inherent character or basic constitution of a person or thing” (Merriam Webster). This means nature is our grounding. I feel that wilderness is part of our grounding as human beings. While some think that wilderness is the absence of human beings, Kari Mosden presents a different approach. In her article, “Can Ecopsychology Save the Wilderness Debate?” Mosden discusses the viewpoint of humans being a part of nature. “Humans are intrinsically tied to the environment. We are a product of nature and cannot, and should not, deny that relationship” (Mosden).  This means that wilderness is a part of our culture; it’s helped build our character, develop viewpoints, and create a thriving economy. It’s even saved our lives.

Yet this is assuming wilderness and nature are synonymous. Many advocates of wilderness preservation believe wilderness to be a place where one can get lost. On the first day of Wilderness Writing one classmate expressed his viewpoint that wilderness no longer exists because there is no place on Earth where one can’t be found or tracked. While this viewpoint is a little extreme, many view wilderness as a place that is constantly shrinking. Wilderness is considered destroyed once humans have interrupted it. Wilderness is always shrinking with this framework of thinking. Aldo Leopold stated in this essay “Wilderness,” “Wilderness is a resource that can shrink, but not grow (Leopold). He explains that wilderness can no longer be created, so we should limit our use of it.

Upon discussing these opposing views of wilderness and listening to classmate’s uses and opinions, I came up with a realization. Perhaps nature can exist without wilderness, but wilderness cannot exist without nature. Considering these two opposing views of wilderness, how to do we come up with a solution to wilderness value conflicts? We must find common ground. The common ground between both of these viewpoints of wilderness is sustainability. No matter how one defines wilderness, there is some need to save it. Of course now enters the problem of how we should go about saving it. Should wilderness be preserved for the biodiversity of the planet? Should it be saved for only human use and recreation? Should wilderness be saved to preserve culture? Should wilderness be saved to preserve the economy? Ultimately, the question to be determined is what value does wilderness have to us and how should we go about ensuring this value sticks.

The first step we have would be in preserving nature, in which humans are a part of. It’s impossible to recreate wilderness, so the best thing we can do is make what we have left sustainable. Sustainability is essential for the survival of future generations, not only for their experiences, but also for the vitalities of life, the economy, and mental sanity.

It’s inevitable that at the current rate and intensity humans are utilizing wilderness, future generations won’t have the same opportunity as resources available to them. This will create the larger generation gap than we already have to today. It seems as if the more wilderness becomes diminished, the more commercialized human beings are coming, and the more children are stuck inside on technology. Yet as stated previously, humans are a part of nature. It’s intrinsically built in their genes as a part of evolution to be involved in it, which explains the role wilderness plays in culture. As wilderness begins to shrink, through “destruction by humans,” our culture becomes more shallow and meaningless.

We can see the involvement of nature in culture development if we look back to the times of oral culture, before digital technology or written stories. Oral culture used “practical intelligence” which involved stories and life lessons learned from the local lands (Abrams). Nature was responsible for telling the stories because everything was alive and had value. When humans try to write this value down, quantify it, or define it, we “find ourselves living more and more in our heads, adrift in a sea of abstractions . . . alien to our own dreams and emotions” (Abram). This could be seen as a cause of a wide variety in the definitions of wilderness. Humans are no longer attached to the land and don’t receive the same generational stories of the land, causing “the land” (wilderness in this case) to be an abstract idea that we try to quantify.

Quantifying the land has become apparent in economic globalization, which has torn apart smaller economies, disrupting not only cultural diversity, but also biodiversity. Yet, we cannot develop, change, preserve, or advocate for wilderness preservation if there is no attachment to it. Changes in language technologies have made our language become more shallow and abstract. Technology has taken personal value from the land, making the value more abstract and distant.

 

I remember my dad always telling me about his interactions with wilderness as a child. He would spend countless days fishing at the lake, skiing in the mountains, hiking through the woods, making campfires, and exploring natural territory. He thoroughly enjoyed the wilderness as a place of recreation. To him, wilderness was like a vast playground where boredom didn’t exist.

Luckily, through the Indian Princess Program at the YMCA, I was able to experience wilderness in similar situations with my dad. On the first day of Wilderness Writing class, when asked to define wilderness, I defined it as a place where we could be creative, explore, and have fun. I have vivid memories of testing boundaries as I walked over unsturdy logs and climbed trees. Seeing who could make the best fire or roast the best marshmallow generated competition. It’s through these experiences that I’ve realized wilderness gives us a chance to forget our current problems bustled up in today’s society and allows us to become rejuvenated. This is one ideal that demonstrates why wilderness should be sustained for recreational purposes.

There are many benefits to outdoor recreation ranging from physical health benefits, to cultural pride, to economic revenue, which all help generate respect of the world around us (Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation). Consider our Wilderness Writing trip to Boone, where we hiked up Grandfather Mountain as a class. No one in our class considered themselves an experienced hiker and we were all nervous about being outside in the elements all day for 7 miles. Yet the accomplishment of reaching an elevation of nearly 6,000 feet left us all speechless, filled with amazement in our unknown abilities. There’s no doubt we got our healthy dose of exercise as our legs burned constantly for the next three days. In addition, pushing each other to our limits, encouraging each other to continue on even when we didn’t think we could make it, allowed for our class to become unified. Our personalities were uncovered in the wilderness as we experienced moment’s frustration, joy, peace, serenity, and excitement. This life-learning lesson of teambuilding and self-realization couldn’t have taken place inside of a classroom. We need wilderness areas and diverse experiences to understand ourselves. Once we understand ourselves, we’re more able to understand others and the natural world around us.

Unfortunately outdoor recreation areas, including national parks and preservation areas are being threatened by our capitalistic lifestyle. “With 80% of our population living in cities, our country is the most urban it’s ever been. For many the only exposure to the natural environment they see is on television and computer screens.” We need to sustain outdoor recreation because  “recreation is the portal for understanding and caring for natural resources and public lands” (Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation). It provides fun, challenging, and attractive experiences from which we learn, become, aware of problems, and then act to give back to make experiences sustainable for future generations.

Unfortunately, preserving wilderness for recreational use only poses many threats on the wilderness environment. The frontier movement in the early 19th century has contributed to American culture of exploiting nature’s resources as a form of expansion and escape. We began building removing Native American’s from their land, building railroads, and developing commercial farming techniques. As population expanded, so did the need for food. This meant more animals needed to be hunted; more plants were destroyed for clothes and food. The rapid growth initiated development of faster, more efficient farming techniques. People began to trade commodities rather than grow them themselves. Attachment to the nature and understanding of how the land works was dwindling as our capitalistic society took off.

There wouldn’t be any problem if natural resources and wilderness were unlimited and if our advance production practices were environmentally sustainable. “The rapid depletion of these essential resources, coupled with the degradation of land and atmospheric quality, shows that the human economy as currently configured is already inflicting serious damage on global supporting ecosystems” (Goodland 7). We can see here that humans are anthropocentric beings, depending on nature and wilderness to keep us alive. Yet are humans willing to share the Earth or should the wilderness make room for humans?

Think about how often we use nature. We rely on clean air to supply oxygen to our muscles so we can simply function as human beings. We depend on a diversity of nutrients that come from a variety of plants and animals. We depend upon nature to provide us jobs. Where would the health care industry be without pharmaceuticals that come from bio diverse plants that are slowly generating? Would we have a business industry if we didn’t utilize the trees, land, fish, and plants involved in wilderness? Our lives are constantly intertwined and dependent upon nature’s resources, but humans have taken that out of context.

When discussing the health of our economy, which is dependent upon nature and sustainability, we fail to put a price on natural capital. We fail to realize that every single tree we cut down, gallon of water we pollute, or animal we kill has a value towards future sustainability. However, as capitalists try to grow our economy, “a subsystem of the finite and non growing earth” (Goodman 9) we realize that we are limited by the availability of natural capital. “Timber is limited by remaining forests, not by saw mills (Goodman 14).” There has been a shift in limiting factors. At first wilderness and nature were seen as limitless and free, but as we take advantage of the land, we’re beginning to see it’s limiting effects. We are no longer limited by our knowledge, but by the diminishing resources of today’s wilderness.

If wilderness’s resources are diminishing due to over use, its spiritual and intrinsic effects must be diminishing as well. Wilderness provides qualities such as “a sense of freedom, refreshment for the mind, body, and spirit, carefree pleasure, splendor, fresh air, a change of pace, solitude, quiet, inspiration, introspection, and inner peace” (Roberts 4). The more and more people are hustled and bustled in today’s society, the more attractive wilderness tourist areas have become. The growing popularity of these tourist areas has generated another form of economic profit.  People with utilism attitudes toward wilderness feel that wilderness and all of it’s natural resources are to be used for man’s production (Saarinen 30). Therefore we’ve begun to build roads, hotels, and resorts in the “wilderness.” But doesn’t this contradict the original purpose for entering the wilderness? Value on a wilderness experience is based on “the quality of one’s conscience” (Cronon). If people’s conscience are tangled up in the hustle and bustle of today’s urban society and wilderness areas are becoming developed and crowded, we have no place to go to clear our conscience.

So what do we do about these complexities? We must balance everything out. Humans need to be involved in wilderness, yet take a more biocentric approach towards it.  We must see ourselves as “citizens of the environmental community rather than conquerors of it” (Roberts 21).  Cronon quotes Wendell Berry claiming, “’The only thing we have to preserve nature with is culture; the only thing we have to preserve wildness with is domesticity” (Berry qtd in Cronon).

Therefore the first step in sustainability of wilderness, nature, and the environment involves preservation of culture. School systems should teach the history of wilderness and explain how it has shaped the American economy. Tales of the land should be passed down. We should acknowledge the fact that we use nature in our every day lives.

Furthermore, we could start by reforming the education system. We could use the wilderness as a teaching tool to demonstrate a wide variety of skills. Field trips and hands on experience could help children learn team-building skills, build confidence, and recognize how dependent we are on land. Many schools in California and New York have adopted school gardens, where the students are involved in growing vegetables and plants to be used in school lunch programs. Studies have shown that small, grassroots movements like this have deepened children’s connections with nature and generated positive attitudes to ecological awareness. They’ve taught children about the importance and fragility of nature (Making the Case: Benefits of School Garden Programs).

In addition to educating, starting sustainable practices such as school gardens can benefit the local ecosystem by increasing biodiversity, drawing new species, eliminating water run off pollution, and providing better quality air (Making the Case: Benefits of School Garden Programs).

Getting youth involved in nature again will decrease the generation gap, as the younger generation interacts with the elder population to regenerate sustainable recreational and economical practices of the past. This will generate activists to preserve nature for recreational use, spiritual revival, and economic sustainability. The only way to preserve wilderness for all three is to intertwine them together through sustainable practices (such as school gardens). We must “encourage growth of natural capital by reducing our current level of exploitation” (Goodland 16). We must continue to use nature as recreation because it’s the “portal for understanding natural resources and public lands” (Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation). We must work together as society to preserve these experiences that provide us with knowledge, connecting our past to our present, to provide us with a life filled with meaningful connections to each other, our culture, our environment, and our roots. After all, humans evolved from wilderness. Therefore sustaining it entails sustaining the human race.

Works Cited

Abram, David. “Storytelling and Wonder: on the rejuvenation of oral culture.” Resurgence 222. Web. 12 April 2013.

“Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation.” United States Forest Service, USDA Recreation, Heritage and Volunteer Resources (2010). Web. 12 April 2013.

Goodland, Robert. “The Concept of Environmental Sustainability.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26 (1995): 1-24. Web. 12 April 2013.

Leopold, Aldo. “”Wilderness”” The Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There. 1949. 200-13. Web. 12 April 2013.

“Making the Case: Benefits of School Garden Programs.” DC Schoolyard Greening, n.d. Web. 19 April 2013.

Mosden, Kari. “Can Ecopsychology Save the Wilderness Debate?” Gatherings: Journal of the International Community of Ecopsychology. Web. 19 April 2013.

“Nature.” Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 19 April 2013.

Roberts, Lynda. The Wilderness Debate: A Conflict Between Values. 1- 26. 12 April 2013.

Saarinen, Jarkko. “Wilderness, Tourism Development, and Sustainability: Wilderness Attutides and Place Ethics.” USDA Forest Service Proceedings. Web. 12 April 2013.

William Cronin, ed., Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature, New York: W. W. Norton &Co., 1995, 69-90.

Manifesto Prospectus

15 Apr

Topic: Importance wilderness sustainability for future generations survival, experience, and economy. This manifesto will focus on the importance of balance in order to achieve sustainability.

 

Significance: At the rate and intensity we are using wilderness, future generations won’t have the opportunity for the same experiences as their family members once had, thus the creation of a greater generation gap. Also, if we don’t focus on the sustainability, many of our resources and conveniences today will not be available in the future. We need balance. This becomes problematic because we want to enjoy the conveniences and industrialization we have created, yet the more we use up our natural resources, the less there are for future use, consumption, and ideals. This problem issue also bleeds into the effect of sustainability on our economy as well.

 

Taking a stance:  I’m not exactly sure of the best way to approach sustainability. However, from research I’ve found we are only as strong as our weakest link, so figuring that out would be a good starting place. Humans should appreciate nature and wilderness and what it has to offer. It’s here for our use, whether it be intrinsic or extrinsic. We should emerge ourselves in it, but respect that it’s ever changing and not permanent. We must work to make wilderness last, which calls for understanding it’s multiple values including natural capital, recreation, vitality to human life, as well as a source of rejuvenation.

 

Thesis (maybe): Wilderness is no longer sustainable. As a society, we must work together to make wilderness last for preservation of culture, economy, and recreation. After all, without wilderness, would our life have any value?

 

Sources:

 

Roberts, Lynda. The Wilderness Debate: A Conflict Between Values. 1- 26. 12 April 2013.

            This article discusses the conflict between intrinsic and extrinsic values of wilderness. Intrinsic uses vary immensely over populations and therefore are more short-term solutions. Roberts suggests we approach wilderness issues with a bio centric outlook, recognizing the interconnections between personal recreational use, economical value, and ecological sustainability to continue all three practices. This article relates recreation, economics, and ecology, which will all need to be sustainable in order to keep society functioning as a whole.

 

Leopold, Aldo. “”Wilderness”” The Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There. 1949. 200-13. Web. 12 April 2013.

This essay discusses views of wilderness use in the past versus the present. Leopold explains how wilderness helped create our culture. He recognizes the many uses and advantages of wilderness that have gotten us to where we are today. Leopold also understands balance between using wilderness, preservation efforts, and sustainability. This source will be useful in proving wilderness is shrinking, meaning it’s not what it once was; and if we don’t strive to sustain it, all of its benefits might be lost.

 

Abram, David. “Storytelling and Wonder: on the rejuvenation of oral culture.” Resurgence 222. Web. 12 April 2013.

            This essay discusses the importance of oral storytelling in becoming in relation with the Earth. It acknowledges that traditional oral storytelling emphasized the world being alive, bringing humans emotionally and physically attached to it. It helps develop the idea that ecology and culture are interconnected. It emphasizes the generational transition from oral storytelling to technological dependence. This article will be assist in demonstrating the generation gap, which creates communication mishaps, and can ultimately lead to conflict, not just with wilderness, but within communities.

 

“Connecting People with America’s Great Outdoors: A Framework for Sustainable Recreation.” United States Forest Service, USDA Recreation, Heritage and Volunteer Resources (2010). Web. 12 April 2013.

This article discusses the wilderness as sustainable recreation. It focuses on the benefits of outdoor recreation such as inspiration, respect, and bonds with friends, and pride in heritage. It touches on the fact that the American population is becoming less and less involved with the outdoor wilderness. The goal of this article is to outline framework for making wilderness sustainable for future generations to understand culture and history, take part of it’s beneficial effects, all while balancing social, economic, and environmental factors. This article will serve to show wilderness use needs balance in order to be sustainable. It also provides examples of ways to use wilderness to make connections, decreasing generation gaps.

 

Goodland, Robert. “The Concept of Environmental Sustainability.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26 (1995): 1-24. Web. 12 April 2013

This article reviews the complexities of environmental sustainability in relation to growth and limits. Goodland discusses the aspects of social, economic, and environmental stability, focusing on how our current economic practices from human capital cannot keep up with the development of natural capital. In addition to discussing the current unsustainability of the human economy now, Goodland touches on the effect our practices have on social sustainability as well. This article focuses on the importance of balance in the way we utilize natural capital in order for sustainability of the environment and economy for future generations.

Project NOAH Contribution

4 Apr

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Field Notes Archive

4 Apr

The field notes archive is a synthesis of the field notes I have taken throughout this course. It includes my opinion of field note writing, as well as examples of the multitude of techniques I tried. I was surprised at how easy it is to take field notes. All it really takes is tuning into your surroundings and writing down what you see. Science classes have led me to believe field notes always had to be formal and scientific based. When first taking field notes I was worried I didn’t have the knowledge necessary to distinguish between different species. However, methods such as “writing what your senses tell you” introduced me to the personal reflection side of field notes. In addition, the Grinnell System (a scientific approach) allows inexperienced scientists to write down their observations and then research what types of species they might have identified. This piece was probably the easiest for me to write because I had multitudes of examples in my daybook of different types of field notes.  Furthermore, I was able to evaluate my field notes to determine which details were relevant. This helped build my understanding of field note quality. If were to build on my archive reflection of field notes, I would add more examples of how I used field notes or how field notes can be used in other professions, such as nursing. Overall, my field note archive excels at explaining the importance of field notes and it’s components.

Today’s society is filled with so many distractions from the outside world. We no longer go outside to look at the weather, but rather constantly get updates directly from our cell phones. If it’s raining, we stay inside and stare contently at a screen. Yet if we examine history, we realize things weren’t always like this. People once made important discoveries that led to some of today’s greatest inventions. Have you ever thought of how these technologies were developed? At some point in time, during the planning and research stage, observations and ideas were written down and recorded. These observations are considered field notes. Diaries from Lewis and Clark and other explorers are also forms of field notes. Field notes are vital to uncovering our past and sustaining our future.

It’s essential that field notes contain a date, time, place, observations, and personal reflection. Dates are important because it allows scientists to compare change over time. It gives us the opportunity to discover issues such as pollution, global warming, degeneration of rainforests, and the extinction of species. Comparing things over a period of time also demonstrates growth patterns, reproductive cycles, and peak seasons. By knowing dates, we can see how biodiversity changes and discover which practices we partake in that harm our environment.
Place is a necessary component to include in field note writing. If interpreters of your notes do not know where you’re observations take place, the notes are useless. It’s impossible to make connections and conclusions if you are unsure of the environment. Location allows us to distinguish between different ecosystems and climates.
Observations are the heart of field notes. No matter which system one choses to use, you must write down your observations. These observations should be detailed. Rather than just simply writing “tree,” one should strive to describe the tree. Document it’s color, surroundings, any unusual findings, its height, and perhaps it’s branching pattern. Anything you can write down that distinguishes an item from other species is essential. The little details help scientists discover biodiversity, different species, as well as problems with pollution. Imagine you were examining leaves on a tree and noticed a bundle of leaves had tiny holes in them. This would be important to note because those little holes could mean a bug has invaded the tree, causing harm to the tree; or possibly, the feasting of the bug on the tree will benefit the tree’s health and help maintain balance in that ecosystem.
The five senses are helpful in recording observations. You can record how nature tastes, feels, smells, sounds, and looks. This not only allows citizen scientists to read what you saw, but also gives them a chance to experience nature just as you pictured it. The five senses provide a context for understanding and appreciation.
The most important part about field notes is personal reflection. The personal insight helps establish a value for wilderness. Every citizen scientist will have different views about how wilderness should be utilized and regulated. By reading field notes with personal reflection, we are able to understand how each individual values wilderness. In addition, we gain insight as to how different animals interact with each other, their habitat, and the ecosystem. Different perspectives on these interactions open ideas to new challenges and uses of wilderness, creating context for appreciation of biodiversity. Also, personal reflection can spark an interest in other scientists for future discovery. This interest could expand to new research projects, developing our understanding of wilderness and the world around us. Personal reflection also helps us see the changes in the value and use of wilderness.
Through the process of taking field notes, I’ve become more observant and aware of my surroundings. I typically wouldn’t notice one tree in a forest, but while sitting at River Park North examining my surroundings, the awkward white tree caught my eye and provided context for creative story writing. Taking field notes can also be relaxing, as you tune out all of the distractions from every day life and pay attention to the noises of the wilderness, such as the sounds of the birds chattering back and forth.
Our experience discussing biodiversity and the five elements at Tusca Landing was probably the most valuable form of field note taking I’ve done. By critically processing how we depend on nature, the five elements, and diversity for survival, I grew a greater understanding for the wildlife we have. The understanding then translated into curiosity as I recorded the Cumerant skimming across the water and the absence of color along the shady side of the river bank.
It’s important to note that there are multiple ways to take field notes. The Grinnell System is a scientific approach. By simply recording observations in the field and then reflecting upon them at the end of the day, we are able to grasp an understanding of how things work together. The species list and index make it easy for other scientists to understand, interpret, and build upon the observations. The Grinnell System gives us a way to identify new species and examine how biodiversity is changing. The field journal section adds a little bit of personal insight, demonstrating how things work together, potentially providing solutions to threats to wilderness.
Writing what your senses tell you is another valuable method that requires making observations using your five senses and then providing a spot for reflection and interpretation. This method is useful for creating stories and wilderness values. The note taker is given the opportunity to interpret how nature makes you feel. At Hebron Rock Colony I observed the continuous current in the middle of the stream and thought of it it as a way of washing away all of my stressors. This method of field notes allows us to spiritually connect to wilderness, developing our own interpretations and values.
Mapping is another method of field note taking where you write something in the center of your paper and make association lines, writing whatever comes to mind. This may include feelings, activities, observations, or inquiries. You then make connections of common themes. The mapping approach physically lets us see how wilderness is interconnected. By illustrating how everything is interdependent, this method helped me understand the importance of balance and moderation in the use of nature’s resources.
Surprisingly, my favorite field note method was the writing what your senses tell you. I paid more attention to my surroundings, rather than searching for plants and species (like in the Grinnell method). This method also allowed me to write my feelings, which created longer lasting, more valuable memories. By recording my senses, thoughts, feelings, and interpretations, I was able to draft a creative narrative that my think-in-the-box, scientific mind wouldn’t ordinarily create.

IMG_1308 IMG_1309 IMG_1310 IMG_1311 IMG_1322 IMG_1323 Field Journal Grinnell Method Page 1 IMG_1325

Pictures:

First Row: Writing what your senses tell you (River Park North)

Second Row: Observation/Interpretation, Mapping (Hebron Rock Colony)

Third Row: Grinnell Method Field Notes (Tusca Landing and Tillery Landing)

Fourth Row: Grinnell Method Field Journal